HAZARD & PRECAUTIONARY STATEMENTS

Hazard statements form part of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). They are intended to form a set of standardized phrases about the hazards of chemical substances and mixtures that can be translated into different languages. As such, they serve the same purpose as the well-known R-phrases, which they are intended to replace.

Hazard statements are one of the key elements for the labelling of containers under the GHS, along with:

  • an identification of the product;
  • one or more hazard pictograms (where necessary)
  • a signal word – either Danger or Warning – where necessary
  • precautionary statements, indicating how the product should be handled to minimize risks to the user (as well as to other people and the general environment)
  • the identity of the supplier (who might be a manufacturer or importer)

Each hazard statement is designated a code, starting with the letter H and followed by three digits. Statements which correspond to related hazards are grouped together by code number, so the numbering is not consecutive. The code is used for reference purposes, for example to help with translations, but it is the actual phrase which should appear on labels and safety data sheets.

Physical hazards

  • H200: Unstable explosive
  • H201: Explosive; mass explosion hazard
  • H202: Explosive; severe projection hazard
  • H203: Explosive; fire, blast or projection hazard
  • H204: Fire or projection hazard
  • H205: May mass explode in fire
  • H220: Extremely flammable gas
  • H221: Flammable gas
  • H222: Extremely flammable aerosol
  • H223: Flammable aerosol
  • H224: Extremely flammable liquid and vapour
  • H225: Highly flammable liquid and vapour
  • H226: Flammable liquid and vapour
  • H227: Combustible liquid
  • H228: Flammable solid
  • H229: Pressurized container: may burst if heated
  • H230: May react explosively even in the absence of air
  • H231: May react explosively even in the absence of air at elevated pressure and/or temperature
  • H240: Heating may cause an explosion
  • H241: Heating may cause a fire or explosion
  • H242: Heating may cause a fire
  • H250: Catches fire spontaneously if exposed to air
  • H251: Self-heating; may catch fire
  • H252: Self-heating in large quantities; may catch fire
  • H260: In contact with water releases flammable gases which may ignite spontaneously
  • H261: In contact with water releases flammable gas
  • H270: May cause or intensify fire; oxidizer
  • H271: May cause fire or explosion; strong oxidizer
  • H272: May intensify fire; oxidizer
  • H280: Contains gas under pressure; may explode if heated
  • H281: Contains refrigerated gas; may cause cryogenic burns or injury
  • H290: May be corrosive to metals

Health hazards

  • H300: Fatal if swallowed
  • H301: Toxic if swallowed
  • H302: Harmful if swallowed
  • H303: May be harmful if swallowed
  • H304: May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways
  • H305: May be harmful if swallowed and enters airways
  • H310: Fatal in contact with skin
  • H311: Toxic in contact with skin
  • H312: Harmful in contact with skin
  • H313: May be harmful in contact with skin
  • H314: Causes severe skin burns and eye damage
  • H315: Causes skin irritation
  • H316: Causes mild skin irritation
  • H317: May cause an allergic skin reaction
  • H318: Causes serious eye damage
  • H319: Causes serious eye irritation
  • H320: Causes eye irritation
  • H330: Fatal if inhaled
  • H331: Toxic if inhaled
  • H332: Harmful if inhaled
  • H333: May be harmful if inhaled
  • H334: May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled
  • H335: May cause respiratory irritation
  • H336: May cause drowsiness or dizziness
  • H340: May cause genetic defects
  • H341: Suspected of causing genetic defects
  • H350: May cause cancer
  • H351: Suspected of causing cancer
  • H360: May damage fertility or the unborn child
  • H361: Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child
  • H361d: Suspected of damaging the unborn child
  • H362: May cause harm to breast-fed children
  • H370: Causes damage to organs
  • H371: May cause damage to organs
  • H372: Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure
  • H373: May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure

Environmental hazards

  • H400: Very toxic to aquatic life
  • H401: Toxic to aquatic life
  • H402: Harmful to aquatic life
  • H410: Very toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects
  • H411: Toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects
  • H412: Harmful to aquatic life with long-lasting effects
  • H413: May cause long-lasting harmful effects to aquatic life
  • H420: Harms public health and the environment by destroying ozone in the upper atmosphere

Country-specific hazard statements

European Union

The European Union has implemented the GHS through the CLP Regulation. Nevertheless, the older system based on theDangerous Substances Directive will continue to be used in parallel until 2016. Some R-phrases which do not have simple equivalents under the GHS have been retained under the CLP Regulation:the numbering mirrors the number of the previous R-phrase.

Physical properties

  • EUH001: Explosive when dry
  • EUH006: Explosive with or without contact with air
  • EUH014: Reacts violently with water
  • EUH018: In use may form flammable/explosive vapour-air mixture
  • EUH019: May form explosive peroxides
  • EUH044: Risk of explosion if heated under confinement

Health properties

  • EUH029: Contact with water liberates toxic gas
  • EUH031: Contact with acids liberates toxic gas
  • EUH032: Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas
  • EUH066: Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking
  • EUH070: Toxic by eye contact
  • EUH071: Corrosive to the respiratory tract

Environmental properties

  • EUH059: Hazardous to the ozone layer, superseded by GHS Class 5.1 in the second adaptation to technical progress of CLP.

Other EU hazard statements

Some other hazard statements intended for use in very specific circumstances have also been retained under the CLP Regulation. Note that, in this case, the numbering of the EU specific hazard statements can coincide with GHS hazard statements if the “EU” prefix is not included.

  • EUH201: Contains lead. Should not be used on surfaces liable to be chewed or sucked by children.
    • EUH201A: Warning! Contains lead.
  • EUH202: Cyanoacrylate. Danger. Bonds skin and eyes in seconds. Keep out of the reach of children.
  • EUH203: Contains chromium(VI). May produce an allergic reaction.
  • EUH204: Contains isocyanates. May produce an allergic reaction.
  • EUH205: Contains epoxy constituents. May produce an allergic reaction.
  • EUH206: Warning! Do not use together with other products. May release dangerous gases (chlorine).
  • EUH207: Warning! Contains cadmium. Dangerous fumes are formed during use. See information supplied by the manufacturer. Comply with the safety instructions.
  • EUH208: Contains <name of sensitising substance>. May produce an allergic reaction.
  • EUH209: Can become highly flammable in use.
    • EUH209A: Can become flammable in use.
  • EUH210: Safety data sheet available on request.
  • EUH401: To avoid risks to human health and the environment, comply with the instructions for use.

Precautionary statements

General precautionary statements

  • P101: If medical advice is needed, have product container or label at hand.
  • P102: Keep out of reach of children.
  • P103: Read label before use.

Prevention precautionary statements

  • P201: Obtain special instructions before use.
  • P202: Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.
  • P210: Keep away from heat, hot surfaces, sparks, open flames and other ignition sources. No smoking. [As modified by IV ATP[5]]
  • P211: Do not spray on an open flame or other ignition source.
  • P220: Keep/Store away from clothing/…/combustible materials. [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P221: Take any precaution to avoid mixing with combustibles.
  • P222: Do not allow contact with air.
  • P223: Do not allow contact with water. [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P230: Keep wetted with …
  • P231: Handle under inert gas.
  • P232: Protect from moisture.
  • P233: Keep container tightly closed.
  • P234: Keep only in original container.
  • P235: Keep cool..
  • P240: Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
  • P241: Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/light/…/equipment.
  • P242: Use only non-sparking tools.
  • P243: Take precautionary measures against static discharge.
  • P244: Keep valves and fittings free from oil and grease. [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P250: Do not subject to grinding/shock/…/friction.
  • P251: Do not pierce or burn, even after use. [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P260: Do not breathe dust/fumes/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
  • P261: Avoid breathing dust/fumes/gas/mist/vapours/spray. [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P262: Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing.
  • P263: Avoid contact during pregnancy/while nursing.
  • P264: Wash … thoroughly after handling.
  • P270: Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
  • P271: Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.
  • P272: Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace.
  • P273: Avoid release to the environment.
  • P280: Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection. [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P281: [Deleted by IV ATP]
  • P282: Wear cold insulating gloves/face shield/eye protection.
  • P283: Wear fire/flame resistant/retardant clothing.
  • P284: [In case of inadequate ventilation] wear respiratory protection. [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P285: [Deleted by IV ATP]
  • P231+232: Handle under inert gas. Protect from moisture
  • P235+410: Keep cool. Protect from sunlight

Response precautionary statements

  • P301: IF SWALLOWED:
  • P302: IF ON SKIN:
  • P303: IF ON SKIN (or hair):
  • P304: IF INHALED:
  • P305: IF IN EYES:
  • P306: IF ON CLOTHING:
  • P307: [Deleted by IV ATP]
  • P308: IF exposed or concerned:
  • P309: [Deleted by IV ATP]
  • P310: Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/… [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P311: Call a POISON CENTER/ doctor/… [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P312: Call a POISON CENTER/ doctor/…/if you feel unwell. [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P313: Get medical advice/attention.
  • P314: Get Medical advice/attention if you feel unwell.
  • P315: Get immediate medical advice/attention.
  • P320: Specific treatment is urgent (see … on this label).
  • P321: Specific treatment (see … on this label).
  • P322: [Deleted by IV ATP]
  • P330: Rinse mouth.
  • P331: Do NOT induce vomiting.
  • P332: If skin irritation occurs:
  • P333: If skin irritation or a rash occurs:
  • P334: Immerse in cool water/wrap in wet bandages.
  • P335: Brush off loose particles from skin.
  • P336: Thaw frosted parts with lukewarm water. Do not rub affected areas.
  • P337: If eye irritation persists:
  • P338: Remove contact lenses if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
  • P340: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.
  • P341: [Deleted by IV ATP]
  • P342: If experiencing respiratory symptoms:
  • P350: [Deleted by IV ATP]
  • P351: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes.
  • P352: Wash with plenty of water/… [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P353: Rinse skin with water/shower.
  • P360: Rinse immediately contaminated clothing and skin with plenty of water before removing clothes.
  • P361: Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P362: Take off contaminated clothing. [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P363: Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P364: And wash it before reuse. [Added by IV ATP]
  • P370: In case of fire:
  • P371: In case of major fire and large quantities:
  • P372: Explosion risk in case of fire.
  • P373: DO NOT fight fire when fire reaches explosives.
  • P374: Fight fire with normal precautions from a reasonable distance.
  • P375: Fight fire remotely due to the risk of explosion.
  • P376: Stop leak if safe to do so.
  • P377: Leaking gas fire – do not extinguish unless leak can be stopped safely.
  • P378: Use … to extinguish.
  • P380: Evacuate area.
  • P381: Eliminate all ignition sources if safe to do so.
  • P391: Collect spillage.
  • P301+310: IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/… [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P301+312: IF SWALLOWED: Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/…/if you feel unwell. [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P301+330+331: IF SWALLOWED: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting.
  • P302+334: IF ON SKIN: Immerse in cool water/wrap in wet bandages.
  • P302+350: [Deleted by IV ATP]
  • P302+352: IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of water/… [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P303+361+353: IF ON SKIN (or hair): Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/ shower. [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P304+312: IF INHALED: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell.
  • P304+340: IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing. [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P304+341: [Deleted by IV ATP]
  • P305+351+338: IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses if present and easy to do – continue rinsing.
  • P306+360: IF ON CLOTHING: Rinse immediately contaminated clothing and skin with plenty of water before removing clothes.
  • P307+311: [Deleted by IV ATP]
  • P308+311: IF exposed or concerned: Call a POISON CENTER/ doctor/… [Added by IV ATP]
  • P308+313: IF exposed: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
  • P309+311: [Deleted by IV ATP]
  • P332+313: If skin irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.
  • P333+313: If skin irritation or a rash occurs: Get medical advice/attention.
  • P335+334: Brush off loose particles from skin. Immerse in cool water/wrap in wet bandages.
  • P337+313: If eye irritation persists get medical advice/attention.
  • P342+311: If experiencing respiratory symptoms: Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/… [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P361+364: Take off immediately all contaminated clothing and wash it before reuse. [Added by IV ATP]
  • P362+364: Take off contaminated clothing and wash it before reuse. [Added by IV ATP]
  • P370+376: In case of fire: Stop leak if safe to do so.
  • P370+378: In case of fire: Use … to extinguish. [As modified by IV ATP]
  • P370+380: In case of fire: Evacuate area.
  • P370+380+375: In case of fire: Evacuate area. Fight fire remotely due to the risk of explosion.
  • P371+380+375: In case of major fire and large quantities: Evacuate area. Fight fire remotely due to the risk of explosion.

Storage precautionary statements

  • P401: Store …
  • P402: Store in a dry place.
  • P403: Store in a well ventilated place.
  • P404: Store in a closed container.
  • P405: Store locked up.
  • P406: Store in a corrosive resistant/… container with a resistant inner liner.
  • P407: Maintain air gap between stacks/pallets.
  • P410: Protect from sunlight.
  • P411: Store at temperatures not exceeding … °C/… °F.
  • P412: Do not expose to temperatures exceeding 50 °C/122 °F.
  • P413: Store bulk masses greater than … kg/… lbs at temperatures not exceeding … °C/… °F.
  • P420: Store away from other materials.
  • P422: Store contents under …
  • P402+404: Store in a dry place. Store in a closed container.
  • P403+233: Store in a well ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.
  • P403+235: Store in a well ventilated place. Keep cool.
  • P410+403: Protect from sunlight. Store in a well-ventilated place.
  • P410+412: Protect from sunlight. Do not expose to temperatures exceeding 50 °C/122 °F.
  • P411+235: Store at temperatures not exceeding … °C/… °F. Keep cool.

Disposal precautionary statements

  • P501: Dispose of contents/container to … [… in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulation(to be specified)].
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